Anti-gliadin antibodies IgG/IgA
Anti-gliadin antibodies are produced in response to gliadin, a prolamin found in wheat. In bread wheat it is encoded by three different alleles, AA, BB, and DD. These alleles can produce slightly different gliadins, which can cause the body to produce different antibodies. Some of these antibodies can detect proteins in specific grass taxa such as Triticeae (Triticeae glutens), while others react sporadically with certain species in those taxa, or over many taxonomically defined grass tribes.
This antibody is found in ~80% of patients with coeliac disease. It is directed against the alpha/beta and gamma (α,β,γ) gliadins. It is also found in a number of patients who are not enteropathic. Some of these patients may have neuropathies that respond favorably to a gluten elimination diet. This is referred to as gluten-sensitive idiopathic neuropathy. Clinically these antibodies and IgG antibodies to gliadin are abbreviated as AGA.
The IgG antibody is similar to AGA IgA, but is found at higher levels in patients with the IgA-less phenotype. It is also associated with coelica disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity. Anti-gliadin antibodies are frequently found with anti-transglutaminase antibodies.
- Sample of blood serum
- We perform the test every Monday