Beta-2-microglobulin (beta-2-M), serum
Beta-2-microglobulin (beta-2-M) is a small membrane protein (11,800 Dalton) associated with the heavy chains of class I major histocompatibility complex proteins and is, therefore, on the surface of all nucleated cells. The small size allows beta-2-M to pass through the glomerular membrane, but it is almost completely reabsorbed in the proximal tubules.
Serum beta-2-M levels are elevated in diseases associated with increased cell turnover. Levels are also elevated in several benign conditions such as chronic inflammation, liver disease, renal dysfunction, some acute viral infections, and a number of malignancies, especially hematologic malignancies associated with the B-lymphocyte lineage.
In multiple myeloma, beta-2-M is a powerful prognostic factor and values <4 mcg/mL are considered a good prognostic factor.
- Sample of blood serum
- We perform the test daily